Monday, November 2, 2009


The Turkish Conquest

The Muslim conquest of India from 1175 to 1340 AD. The causes for their conquest though various, the major reason was the spread of Islam.  The Muslim dominated Kabul, the Punjab, and Sindh, before intruding in to India. The first attempt to enter the Indian territory was determined by the circumstances leading  to the invasion of Sindh. The  wealth in India lured the Muslim rulers. Further the inter-rivalry between the kingdoms in India  paved the way for their entry in to India. The immediate cause of Muslim intervention is said to be plundering of some ships which carried costly gifts from the king of Ceylon for the Khalifa, near the port of Debal by sea pirates. The Hindu ruler of the Sindh, Raja Dahir was asked to compensate for this by the Governor of Iraq. The refusal to comply with this demand for the reason that the port was not under his control infuriated the Governor who sent two expeditions to defeat the  Raja . But both the attempts  to defeat the Raja failed. This further infuriated the governor who sent his son-in law Muhammad-bin-Qasim in 711AD with a large army to conquer Sindh. In 712 AD Raja Dahir was defeated and put to death. Sindh, Multan  and Kannauj were conquered.

The next invasion by the Turks who opposed the authority of the Khalifas was by Alaptagin. He had established himself in Khorasan and extended upto Kabul and Ghazni. He was succeeded by one of his slave Sabuktagin. In 986 AD he came into conflict with Raja Jaipal of Bathinda. In 991 AD Raja Jaipal allied with other Hindu king including Rajyapala the Prathira king of Kannauj and Dhanga the ruler of the distant Chandela kingdom to avenge his defeat. The allies were defeated , Peshwar and Kurram valley came under Muslim influence.

Mahmud of Ghazni

The elder son of Sabuktagin, Mahmud of Ghazni assumed the throne in 997 AD. He was very conscious of the wealth he could achieve from further conquests into India. He was also a religious fanatic who aimed to spread Islam. At the eve of Mahmud's invasion there existed no strong power to confront  his military might. There existed numerous kingdoms who were involved in quarrelling and fighting with each other. Mahmud is said to have invaded India seventeen times. His first raid dates to 1001 AD. In course of his second expedition he defeated Jaipal. In 1004 AD he invaded and captured Bhera.

In 1006 AD he captured Multan. In 1008 AD he invaded again and captured Multan. Anandapal, the son of Jaipal continued the struggle against Mahmud . Having allied with the ruler of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kannauj, Delhi and Ajmer he posed a serious threat to Mahmud's army. But unfortunately Anandapal had to ceed to the Muslim army.

In 1009AD Mahmud attacked the fortress of Kangra or Bhimnagar and accumulated vast treasures. In 1013AD Mahmud reduced the honour of the Hindushahi Kingdom by their defeat. In the year 1014AD Mahmud invaded Thaneshwar and acquired more wealth from the temples. In 1018 Mahmud led an expedition against Kannauj and succeeded its ruler's willingness to convert to Islam. Mathura was also invaded and its magnificient temple was burnt. In 1021-22 AD Mahmud invaded Gwalior, Kashmir and Lahore. The ruler of Kalinjar and Gwalior combined and invaded Kannauj and killed its ruler Rajayapala. In the conflict that resulted Mahmud looted the wealth of Kalinjar and went back to Ghazni.

In 1025AD Mahmud invaded Somnath and looted its temple on the coast of Saurashtra or Kathiwar. Enormous treasure of the fortified temple was looted. In 1026AD he invaded Punjab. His last invasion was in about 1027 AD. He died in 1030AD.

The invasion of Mahmud opened the way for the future Muslim adventures in India. The repeated success of Mahmud was an eye opener for the Muslim thirst for consolidating themselves politically, economically and to promote their religious outlook. The status of Ghazni grew to a big empire. The next important Muslim ruler who had made hisi nfluence in Indian history known was Muhammad Ghori. Muhammad Ghori is said to have invaded India seven times. The Ghurs who originally belonged to Persia. After the downfall of the rule of Ghazni in the 12th century. The credit for the destruction of Ghazni goes to Alauddin. Ghiyas-ud-din of Ghur wrested Ghazni from the Turks and gave the power of consolidating the empire to his brother Sahabuddin. He was known as Mohammad Ghori.

Mohammad Ghori

Mohammad Ghori invaded Multan in about 1175-76AD.  In 1178 he attempted the conquest of Gujarat. He was strongly resisted by Bhimdev II who inflicted a crushing defeat on him in 1178 AD.In 1179 he conquered Peshwar and annexed Lahore. In 1186 AD Mohammad Ghori deposed Khusru Malik, the last prince in the generation of Sabuktgin and Mahmud and after occupying Punjab kept himself in a strong position in the Indus region.

In 1191AD Mohammad Ghori met Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain. Here unlike the separate independent forces which Mohammad met in his previous campaigns. He had to face combined armies of Prithviraj, the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer and Delhi. Mohammad Ghori was severely wounded and outnumbered. He was defeated and left the battle-field.

In the very next year in 1192 AD  both the armies met again at Tarain. This time Mohammad cleverly out did Prithvi Raj Chauhan. The gateway to Delhi was opened.

In 1194 AD Mohammad Ghori invaded and defeated the ruler of Kannauj. He occupied Benares. Mohammad Ghori had left Qutab-ud-din Aibek who was a slave from Turkistan in charge of the Indian affairs. In 1193 Qutab-ud-din Aibek occupied Delhi and he joined Mohammad Ghori's invasion on Kannauj whose ruler Jaichand was defeated and killed. Gwallior and Anhilwara the capital of Gujarat besides Ajmer was also occupied by 1197 AD. Qutab-ud-din's general Muhammad Khilji successfully plundered and conquered the fort of Bihar in 1193 AD. In about 1199-1202AD Muhammad Khilji brought Lakshmana Sena the ruler of Bengal under his authority. In 1203 Qutab-ud-din Aibek conquered Bundelkhand. Mohammad Ghori died in 1206AD.


Qutab-ud-din Aibek

Qutab-ud-din Aibek established himself as the sultan of Delhi at Lahore. He strengthened his position through matrimonial alliances with his rivals. He gave his daughter to Iltumish the foremost of his slaves. Qutab-ud-din died in 1210AD. He had laid the foundation of a new dynasty called the Slave dynasty in 1206AD.


After Qutab-ud-din his son Aram Shah succedded to his throne. He was not able to display the skill of conquests and administration shone by his forerunners. This had demanded Iltumish to take charge of the situation as desired by the nobles too. A battle followed in which Aram Shah was defeated and killed. In 1211 AD Iltumish came to the throne. He was also known as Shams-ud-din. He spent his days in retriving the lost territories of Qutab-ud-din, and also added Malwa and Sind. During the reign of Iltumish he fought against the rival slave chiefs Yildiz and Qabacha. His attempts to appease Yildiz diplomatically to accept his authority gave time to prepare himself. At the battlefield of Tarain both of them met and Yildiz was defeated.

Another important problem faced by Iltumish was the Mongols led by Chingiz Khan. In his diplomatic decision he avoided a conflict with the might Mongol by preventing Jalad-ud-din the ruler of Khawarism from coming to India. Iltumish defeated his rival slave chieftain Qabacha and captured both Multan and Sindh. After this he made Ghias ud-din ceed to the supremacy of Iltumish. Later, he defeated Ghias-ud-din  who revolted ,and conquered his territories of Bengal and Bihar. Another major threat to the power of Iltumish was the independent Rajput rulers who inspite of their rivalry could pose a serious danger to the Sultanate. On 1226 AD he attacked Ranthambor and Mansor. He also occupied Ajmer, Jalor, Nagor. In 1229 Gwalior was was occupied and the fort of Kalinjar was plundered. Kannauj, Banaras and Badaun were under his dominion. In the year 1229 AD the Caliph of Bagdad recognised him as Sultan. This bestowed upon him the power to nominate his successors.

 Iltumish was also a patron of art and learning. His completion of the Qutab Minar proves him to be a man of good architectural skills and tastes besides striving adequately for promoting his religion. Iltumish was succeeded by his son Rukn-ud-din Feroze who came to the throne as desired by the nobles even though Iltumish had nominated his daughter Razia to the throne. Rukn-ud-din did not prove to be a competent ruler and he left his duty of administration to his mother Shah Turkan. The unpopular rule that followed led to revolts by several governors of various provinces. Finally Rukn-ud-din and his mother Shah Turkan were murdered and the throne was succeeded by Razia Begum who ruled from 1236 AD to1240 AD. She had accomplished the major task of subduing the revolting governors and the bringing the territories under her control. She married Altunia the governor of Bhatinda.

In 1240 AD the Turkish nobles deposed her and declared. Bahram Shah as their ruler, and both Razia and Altunia was killed. Bahram Shah was a mere puppet in the hands of the nobles. He was succeeded by Masud Shah ,a nephew of Razia Begum. Owing to his inability the nobles displaced him with Nasir-uddin Mahmud the youngest son of Iltumish. He was in power for twenty five years. The affairs of the state was left to his father-in-law and minister Ulugh Khan Balban. After the death of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud in 1226 AD the power was taken over by Balban.

As a minister during the time of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Balban had accomplished himself as an able administrator. His ideas of diplomacy and suppression of revolts with an iron hand helped him in establishing a strong rule in the history of the slave dynasty. As a minister he put down the revolting rajputs, the khokars, and the rulers of the Doab region. Ramthambhor, Gwalior, Chanderi and Malwa came under his rule. He was able to quell the power of Mewatis in 1259 AD.He firmly resolved the rivalry among the 'Fourty slaves' whose decision was the final word of the dynasty. They plotted against Balban with the help of the Sultan. But this resulted in Chaos which forced the Sultan to call back Balban.

To ensure the kingdom's safety against the invading Mongols he built forts on the borders and stationed a strong army. In 1258 AD and 1259 AD Balban led campaigns against the Rajputs of the Doab and Meos of Delhi. During his early days of rule of Balban,   he pursued the suppression of the Meos. He brought order in Rohilkhand. He suppressed the revolt of Tughril Khan, the governor of Bengal. Balban died in 1287 AD. His achievements besides the consolidation of the slave kingdom include his contribution to increase the power and importance of the ruler. He had brought various code of conduct in his court that involved even the manner of dressing and addressing. He reorganised his army with equipments and stationed them in forts at vulnerable places of foreign intrusion. He paid them well in cash besides appointing governors to supervise the activities of the army.

His administration was strongly based on his military power. Enforcement of decision and disposition of justice with a competent spy system kept him informed of the activities of every one in his kingdom. He maintained a strict attitude towards the Hindus and kept them under strong suppression with the help of his military power. He was undoubtedly the greatest of the military rulers of the Slave dynasty. He was to be succeeded by Kai Khasrau, but a diplomatic gamble brought Qaigabad the son of Bulhara Khan the governor of Bengal to the throne. He was a grandson of Balban. Aged eighteen. Qaigabad turned a blind eye to the affairs of the state. He was disposed off by the nobles bringing his three year old son to the throne. 

Another series of uprisings and revolts started amongst the nobles, many of them declaring independence thus unleasing a state of confusion. This was the period when Jalaluddin Khilji of the Khilji tribe who was placed on the throne by the nobles brought a new rule to follow under the name of the Khilji dynasty. The rule of this dynasty started in 1290 AD and continued till 1340 AD.


Between the period 1343 AD and 1351 AD, during the region of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq a series of revolts resulted in the vast empire being divided into numerous independent provinces.
An Afghan or Turkish officer of the Delhi Sultan named Hassan assumed the title of Bahman Shah and after occupation of Daulatbad in the Deccan proclaimed independence. He was also known as Alauddin I, the founder of the Bahmani dynasty.

 His capital was at Gulbarga which was also called as Hassanabad after the Sultan's name Hassan. He conquered large part of the Deccan. By 1358 AD his empire included areas near  the west coast , the ports of Goa and Dabhal. Alauddin I was succeeded by Muhammad Shah I. He waged wars against the Hindu rulers of Vijayanagar and Warangal. With his policy of subjuction he subdued countless number of rival Hindu rulers, and accumulated vast treasures. He administered  the provinces by yearly tours and was advised by a group of eight ministers. Thus he set a pattern of administration for the Bahmani kingdom.

He was succeeded by Alauddin Mujahid who ruled for 3 years before,being murdered by his cousin brother Duad, which resulted in a civil war. Ahmad Shah ascended the throne in 1422 after deposing Firoz who was the eighth Sultan who ruled from 1397 AD to 1422 AD. He attacked Vijayanagar and resorted to brutal subjection of his opponents who resisted his attacks. Peace was concluded with Vijayanagar. Ahmad Shah also fought against the Sultan of Malwa and Gujarat and the Hindu chiefs of the Konkan. It was during his reign that the capital of the Bahamani kingdom was shifted to Bidar, also called Ahmedabad. Ahmad Shah was succeeded by his eldest son Alauddin II who ruled from (1435-57 AD).   He  was succeeded by Humayun who ruled from (1451-1461 AD). He pursued a cruel policy of subjuction and brutal punishments till he was succeeded by Muhammad Shah III ,who ruled from (1463-1482 AD) assisted by his able minister Khwaja Mahmud Gawan. A series of conquest  followed which involved capture of the strong fortress of Belgaum in 1473 AD and recovery of Goa in 1472 AD from the rulers of the Vijayanagar empire. It was during his rule that the famine of Bijapur befell over the Deccan in 1473 AD. Kanchipuram  was raided in the course of the campaign against Vijayanagar in 1481 AD. In 1482 AD Khwaja Mahmud Gawan was murdered and Mahmud Shah succeeded to the throne in 1482 AD and ruled till 1518 AD. During his reign the provincial governors declared their independence and set up five separate kingdoms.

The Imad Shahi Dynasty of Berar

This consisted of the northern part of the Bahamani Kingdom. The Shahi Dynasty of Berar lasted for four generations till 1574 AD.

The Barid Shahi Dynasty of Bidar

The Barid Shahi dynasty was governed by the Barid Shahi Sultans. It was established in 1492 AD by Qasim Barid the minister of Mahmud Shah Bahamani. This dynasty lasted till 1619 AD when it was annexed by Bijapur.

The Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar

The Nizam Shahi dynasty was founded by Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri. In 1490 AD his son Malik Ahmad defeated the army of Mahmud Bahmani and established himself independent. He assumed the title of Ahmad Nizam Shah and after him the dynasty was named Nizam Shahi dynasty. The next ruler was Burhan Nizam Shah was the next ruler who ruled for forty five years. He was succeeded by Hussain Shah. The state was later annexed in 1637 during the reign of ShahJahan.

The Adil Shahi ynasty of Bijapur

The Adil Shahi was founded by Yusuf Adil Khan, the governor of Bijapur who declared his independence in 1489. Yusuf Adil Shah waged war against Vijayanagar and other Muslim neighbours. It was duringhis rule that Yusuf Adil Shah's favourite residence, of Goa was captured by the Portuguese commander. Alberquerque in 1510 AD. Ismail Shah succeeded Adil shah but being a minor he was helped by Kamal Khan . He lost his life in a conspiracy and was succeeded by Ibrahim.

Ibrahim assumed the title of Ibrahim Adil shah and ruled till 1557 AD.Ali Adil Shah Succeeded Ibrahim Adil Shah. Following a policy of alliance he married Chand Bibi the daughter of Hussain NIzam shah of Ahamadnagar. In the year 1564 AD the four sultans allied at Talikota against the Vijayanagar empire. The Battle of Talikota followed in 1565 AD. Commanded on the Muslim side by Hussain Nizam shah of Ahmadnagar. Ali adil Shah of Bijapur, Ali Barid shah of Golkonda. Victory for the Muslim forces came after a fierce battle and the empire of Vijayanagar was  annexed to the territory  of Bijapur and Golkonda. In 1570 AD Ali Adil Shah with the other sovereigns attempted to capture settlements of the Portuguese. Adil shah was killed in 1579 AD. The throne was passed on to Ibrahim Adil Shah II who was a minor. His mother chand Bibi looked after him while ministers ruled the kingdom. In 1595 AD the Ahmadnagar monarch was killed in a fight between Bijapur and Ahmednagar. Ibrahim Adil Shah II died in 1626 AD. In 1680 AD this country was annexed by Aurangzeb. 

The Qutab Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda

The Qutab Shahi dynasty was a part of the Bahmani empire which was called Golkonda. The founder of this dynasty was Sultan Quli Qutab Shah who was formerly the governor of the eastern province. He declared his independence in 1518 AD. Qutab Shah met with his death in 1543 AD and his son Jamshed ruled till 1550 AD. The throne was held by Ibrahim till 1580 AD and later his son Muhammad Quli ruled till 1611 AD. The state was finally annexed by Aurangzeb in 1687 AD.

In the Deccan there also existed a small kingdom which was not a part of the Bahmani kingdom. This was the Faruqi dynasty of Khandesh. It was established in 1388 AD and came to an end in 1601 AD after the fortress of Asirgarh was surrendered to Akbar


Muhammad-bin Tughluq

Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq also known as Tughluq Shah was appointed as the governor of Dipalpor in Punjab by Allauddin Khilji. The rule of Ghiyjas-ud-din Tughluq includes the suppression of the revolt at Warangal. Pratap Rudradeva of Warangal had accepted overlordship of Allauddin Khilji and agreed to pay tribute annually. After the death of Allauddin Khilji he neglected this. Ghiyas-ud-din sent his son Juna Khan to conquer Warrangal. In 1323 AD Rudra Pratap Deva was defeated. Warangal was renamed as Sultanpur and annexed to Delhi.  Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq came to the throne in 1325 AD. The rule of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq includes various reforms. The first of these reforms included his attempt to consolidate his empire by curbing the rebellions of 1327 AD by his cousin Baha-ud-din Garsharp in the Deccan and the other of Kishulu Khan, the governor of Multan and Sind in 1328AD.

Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's experiments with his ideas of administration are noteworthy. The transfer of his capital from Delhi to Daulatbad earlier known as Devagiri. This transfer of capital involved the shifting of the army, officials, servants, tradesman, court and shift of population. This was a torture of the people who suffered greatly. The introduction of token currency brought discredit to his rule. The rampant circulation of copper coin and withdrawal of silver and gold coins brought down the value of currency. Copper coins lost its value. To overcome this the Sultan ordered exchange of silver coins for copper coins. Thus people got silver coins in abundance and copper coins were in heaps. The taxation in Doab which resulted out of the conditions of an empty treasury and the scheme which was implemented in a wayward manner made it a failure. The conquest of Khorasan which required a strong army and later disbanding it was an act of instability.

Muhammad bin Tughluq's engagements with his domestic affairs made him turn a blind eye to the Mongols who made use of his opportunity and invaded India in 1328 AD. The shifting of the capital from Delhi to Devagiri also proved advantageous to the Mongols, as they prepared for more conquests. The Sultan's ambitions plan of invading Himachal and the devastationof his army owing to inhospitable climatewas another blunder by Mohammed-bin -Tughluq.   An attempt to capture Malabar in 1335 AD failed owing to the spread of Cholera in the army. In1338 Fakhruddin Mubarak of Bengal declared himself independent. In 1340 the Governor of Gujarat declared himself independent. The Sultan faced problems from the Afghans  led by Hasan Gangu . In 1350 AD the province of Gujarat revolted and under Taghi. Pursuing the enemy to inflict punishment, unfortunated Mohammed bin-Tughluq died out of illness. He was succeeded by his cousin Feroz Tughlug who was delivered of a Rajput mother.

Feroze Tughlaq

Feroze Tughlaq became the Sultan in the year 1351 AD. Though the throne was a long dream of many. Feroz Tughlak did not contribute much to expand the territories of the empire which he inherited. His military weakness resulted in the loss of his territories. He failed in his attempt to regain Bengal. In 1360 he invaded Jajnagar to destroy the Jagan nath Puri temple. In 1326 AD he met with success in his expedition to Sindh, before this he had led an invasion Nagarkot with an idea to destroy the Jwalamukhi temples. The Sultan was not  tolerant towards people with different religion. He reintroduced the Jagirdari system which was abolished by Alauddin Khilji's. All these measures brought a good result in the financial status of the empire. Feroz Tughluq also introduced reforms in the field of irrigation. He constructed dams, tanks and well and besides these also constructed buildings with architectural skill. This shows his awareness about public utility. Feroze Tughluq also patronized learning. He reformed the currency system. All these proves that he was the cast of the capable Tughluqs. After him the dynasty began to disintegrate. He was immediately succeeded by Ghias- uddin Tughlaq-II who ruled from 1388-1389 AD. He was murdered in 1389 AD and was succeeded by Abu Baker. In a struggle that followed between him and one of the sons of Feroze Tughlaq Abu Baker was defeated. The younger son of Feroze Tughluq. Nasir ud-din Muhammad ruled from 1390-1394 AD. He died in 1394 AD and was succeeded by Humayun. After his death in 1395 the Tughluq dynasty saw the last Tughluq ruler Mahmud Nasir-uddin. He ruled from 1395-1413 AD. The invasion of Timur sealed the fate of the Tughluq dynasty.

After the Tughluk dynasty Indian history witnessed the rule of the Saiyyids and the Lodis. The foundation  of these two kingdoms was on the rubbles of the Tughluq's which was grazed to the ground as a result of Timur's invasion. Timur was a Barlas Turk. Born in 1336 AD he grew up with a military skill that made him a military genius. He attained the throne of Samargand in 1369 AD. With a zeal of conquering distant lands he set out and conquered several central Asian territories before turning towards India. With an ambition to possess a large territory, besides acquiring enough wealth and with an awareness about the disintegrating Delhi Sultanate he invaded beyond the Indus with a powerful army. Timur's grandson Pir Muhammad had conquered Multan, Ulch, Pakpatan and Dipal-pur. Both proceeded towards Delhi and defeated Sultan Muhammad Shah. He then conquered Meerut and Haridwar. Besides conquering these territories he looted the wealth of the temples. He nominated Khizr Khan as his governor in India. Thus the political stability of the country was disrupted and the condition that prevailed then ultimately resulted in the downfall of the Tughlaqs.

 Saiyyid dynasty

Then came the Saiyyid dynasty founded by Khizr Khan. The Sayyids ruled from about 1414 AD to 1450 AD. At a time when the provinces were declaring themselves independent the first task of Khizr Khan was the suppression of the revolts. In 1412 AD he conquered Gujarat, Gwalior and Jaunpur. In 1416 he defeated Bayana and in 1421AD he attacked Mewat. Due to illness he died in the year 1421 AD. He was succeeded by Mubarak Shah who succeeded in suppressing the revolts against him In a conspiracy against him he was killed by him opponents in 1434 AD. After him Muhammad-bin-Farid came to the throne. During his reign there was confusion and revolts. The empire came to an end in 1451 AD with his death.

The Lodhi dynasty

Behlol Lodhi who was in service during Khizr Khan founded the Lodhi dynasty. Behlol Lodhi was an Afghan of the Lodi tribe. He became the governor of Punjab and was proclaimed the Sultan in 1451AD. After coming to the throne he quelled the rebelling nobles and Jagirdars. He gave jagirs to the Afghan nobles to win their cooperation, and brought Mewar, Sambal and Gwalior under his rule.
Behlol Lodhi nominated his son Nizam Khan as his successor. But the nobles placed Barbak Shah on the throne.

In the struggle that ensured Nizam Khan was successful and ascended the throne as Sikandar Lodi. He proved to be a capable ruler who brought back the lost prestige of the Sultan. He maintained friendly relations with the neighbouring states. Sikandar Lodi settled his differences with his uncle Alam Khan who conspired against him. He also defeated Barbak Shah who in co-operation with Hussain Shah of Jaunpur fought against him. Barbak Shah was appointed the governor of Jaunpur. He brought Gwalior and Bihar under his rule. Though he was a religious fanatic yet he brought changes in some of the practices of the Muslims. He encouraged education and  trade. His military skill helped him in bringing the Afghan nobles under his control.

Sikandar Lodi was succeeded by Ibrahim Lodi who is said to have been the last great ruler of the Lodi dynasty. He came to the throne in 1517 AD. The nobles brought his younger brother Jalal Khan as the ruler of Jaunpur. The nobles who wanted division of the empire into two created problems of Ibrahim Lodi. He defeated Jalal Khan in a battle. He conquered Gwalior, and came into conflict with Rana Sanga the ruler of Mewar who defeated him twice. His relations with the Afghan nobles became worse and this led to several conflicts with him. The discontented Afghan chiefs sent Daulal Khan Lodi to invite Babur the ruler of Kabul to India. After many incursions in the year 1525 and1526 Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat. With this defeat the Delhi Sultanate was laid to rest.

The History of India added a new outlook with the coming of Babur. This was the beginning of a rule that is recorded as the medieval history of India.


Alauddin Khilji

After coming to the throne of the Khilji dynasty Jalal-ud-din expanded the boundaries of his empire. Besides this his achievements include suppression of the revolt of Malik Chhaju with the governor of Qudh. He suppressed the 'Thuggees' a band of robbers and send them off peacefully to Bengal. It was during the conquest of Bhilsa that Ala-ud-din the nephew of Jalal-ud-din started realising the dream of being Sultan. In 1292 AD Alauddin led an expedition to Devagiri hearing of its wealth. Devagiri was forced to pay a huge war indemnity. This helped Alauddin in buying the nobles and pleasing the soldiers who were disatisfied by the rule of Jala-ud-din. Alauddin then hatched a conspiracy and got  Sultan Jala-lud din killed and proclaimed himself as the Sultan. In the year 1296 AD Alauddin became the Sultan, after Malika Jan the widow of Jalal-ud-din and her younger son Qadin Khan left Delhi. In 1297 AD Alauddin Khilji set off for conquering Gujarat. The Raja of Gujarat took shelter in Devagiri where Nusrat Khan an Ulugh Khan pursued them and looted. Here Nusrat Khan purchased a Hindu slave called Malik Kafur who in due course helped Alauddin Khilji in his future conquests. In 1301 Ramthambhor was captured and the Rajput Hamir Deva was murdered. In 1303 he conquered Chittor killing Rana Rattan Singh. His queen Rani Padmini with the other women committed Jauhar.

In 1305 Alauddin Khilji captured Malwa and annexed Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi. Allauddin Khilji's expedition to Bengal was not successful and it remained independent.
In 1308, Allauddin led an expedition to capture a fort in Sivana, Rajasthan. In 1311AD Allauddin set off on the Jalor expedition. Thus he almost completed his conquests of North. Allauddin now set out to conquer the south  lured by the wealth of Devagiri.Being the first to have thought of venturing to the south this region could be a source of revenue for him. In this adventure of his, Malik Kafur his slave who in course of time turned to be an able commander contributed greatly.Allauddin had already invaded Devagiri in the year 1294 AD and had reconciled for the condition that a tribute would be paid. Malik Kafur led the operation .

A huge war indemnity was paid and a tribute offered. In 1310 AD Malik Kafur was sent to invade the Hoyasala kingdom of Dwarasamudra. The ruler conceded  to his demands and further assisted Malik Kafur in his quest against the Pandya kingdom.In 1311AD Malik Kafur went on an expedition to the Pandya kingdom which had its capital at Madurai. Malik Kafur came out successful. In 1313 AD Allauddin set out on Devagiri and annexed it to Delhi. During the rule of Allauddin Khilji, the Mongols invaded the country several times. The first invasion came during the period of 1297 AD. The forces of Sultan successfully repulsed this invasion .

In 1298 AD Saldi's invasion was neutralized by Zafar Khan thus increasing his prestige. In 1299 AD Qutlugh Khwaja invaded India for the third time. A fierce battle was the result involving Zafar Khan, Nusrat Khan and Alagh Khan. The Mongols were routed but it cost the life of Zafar Khan. In the year 1303 AD under the leader ship of Targhi another mongol invasion was carried out. From this invasion Allauddin Khilji learnt the lessons of keeping himself prepared, not only with a strong army but by fortifying and organizing his armed forces.  In 1305 AD the Mongols led by Ali Beg and Tartaq invaded India but were brutally defeated. The last of the mongol invasion was the under the leadership of Kubak and Iqbamand. Even this invasion was successfully met by Allauddin Khilji.
 In his later days Allauddin had to face many troubles. Malik Kafur influenced all his actions. He met with his death in the year 1316 AD. An infant son of the Sultan was placed on the throne and he acted as the regent. Malik Kafur imprisoned, blinded and killed other members of the royal family. But Malik Kafur was murdered, and Mubarak Khan the third son of Alauddin Khilji became the regent. He then imprisoned Sahib uddin and ascended the throne as Qutb-ud-din Mubarak in the year 1316 AD. The rule of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak was an utter failure owing to his liberal administration and luxurious life style. Above all he was under the influence of youth called Hassan who later was called Khusru Khan. The misdoings of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak led to his death at the hands of Khusru Khan. The death of Mubarak sealed the fate of the Khilji dynasty. Khusru who came to the throne after Qutbuddin Mubarak was not favoured by the Turkish nobles. He was killed by a  Qaraunak Turk noble, Ghazi Malik Tughluq. This paved the way for the foundation of a new dynasty called the Tughluq dynasty.

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